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Using fluorescence microscopy, researchers observed the location of annexin A2 protein within cells under normal conditions (left) and after irradiation (right), which caused a majority of the proteins to relocate to the nucleus.July 2014Science Highlights

Cell Signaling Responses to Low-Dose Radiation

Study shows protein moves to nucleus, helps irradiated cells survive. Read More »

Changes in primary DNA sequence (a) and three-dimensional structure (b) upon directed evolution of the noncatalytic protein hRXRα to the ligase enzyme 10C.July 2014Science Highlights

Watching the Evolution of a Protein’s Function

Study reveals structural changes leading to catalytic activity. Read More »

As part of research to improve biofuel production processes, scientists are studying how a soil microbe found in Puerto Rico’s El Yunque National Forest (shown here) breaks down lignin in plant cell walls.July 2014Science Highlights

Tropical Soil Bacterium Frees Plant Sugars for Biofuels

Microbe found to use two biochemical pathways for degrading lignin. Read More »

The Community Land Model explicitly simulates microbial-driven soil carbon cycling in aboveground, surface, and subsurface soil horizons.July 2014Science Highlights

From Microbes to Global Carbon Models

Understanding microbial community processes improves predictions of soil carbon dynamics. Read More »

A large portion of the plant cell wall contains cellulose, which consists of sugar molecules organized into cable-like structures called microfibrils.July 2014Science Highlights

Making Cellulose More Accessible for Bioconversion

Simulations and neutron diffraction reveal how amines disrupt cellulose’s structure. Read More »

Phytoplankton known as coccolithophores bloom in the Barents Sea north of Russia, their scales giving off a bright green glow.July 2014Science Highlights

Genomic Sequence of a Marine Blooming Alga

Genome variability helps explain why Emiliania huxleyi canflourish in diverse ocean habitats. Read More »

Protein production occurs in two basic steps: transcription and translation.July 2014Science Highlights

Recoding of Bacterial Genome Produces Proteins with New Functions

Altered stop codon allows E. coli strain to incorporate nonstandard amino acids. Read More »

Research suggests that methane (CH<sub>4</sub>) utilization by the bacterium <em>Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum</em> under low  oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>) conditions may involve switching to a new fermentation-based  mode that leads to the formation of formate, acetate, succinate, lactate,  hydrogen, and hydroxybutyrate as end products.July 2014Science Highlights

New Metabolic Pathway Discovered in Methane-Consuming Bacteria

Opportunities emerge for using microbes to convert the gas to biofuels and other products. Read More »

Cultivated barley is the fourth most abundant crop in the world and a model for plant genetics research.July 2014Science Highlights

Assembling Complex Plant Genomes

New, rapid, and low-cost approach can be applied to many species. Read More »

A study comparing microbial communities before and after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico indicates that, although overall population diversity changed, some microbes were unaffected.July 2014Science Highlights

Hope for Re-establishing Microbial Populations in the Gulf of Mexico

2010 oil spill reduced diversity, but some species were unaffected. Read More »

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