Distribution of 2011 mid- and long-term accelerator R&D by institution.
The current Office of Science (SC) accelerator R&D effort supports world-leading research in accelerator science and accelerator technology, and represents the skill base from which to launch our accelerator R&D stewardship effort. Such R&D is necessary for the advancement of a broad range of scientific disciplines, including high energy physics, nuclear physics, and photon and neutron science, that are central to the DOE science mission. The accelerator R&D takes place at 8 national laboratories along with about 20 universities and other institutions. In terms of typical funding (see figure to the right) roughly 90% of the R&D is carried out at DOE national laboratories. The Office of Science also manages a wide range of commercial accelerator-related R&D at more than thirty small businesses through the DOE SBIR program.
There is a strong complementarity between the R&D efforts carried out at the national laboratories and those carried out at the universities. Large-scale efforts make use of the national laboratory infrastructure, engineering, and fabrication capabilities. Examples include superconducting radio frequency (SRF) R&D at FNAL and TJNAF, normal-conducting RF (NCRF) R&D at SLAC, use of drive beams at ANL, BNL, FNAL, and SLAC, and use of high-power lasers at BNL and LBNL. Smaller scale concept-development efforts in these areas are generally supported by university grants. As needed, promising concepts are tested at national laboratory test facilities, such as the Advanced Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) at ANL, the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at BNL, the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at SLAC, and the BELLA facility at LBNL. The ability of university programs to send students to the national laboratories provides opportunities for “hands-on” training of the next generation of accelerator physicists and engineers, and represents a valuable synergy for the accelerator R&D effort.
Long-term, proposal-driven research on the fundamental science and technology underlying accelerators and beams to enable breakthroughs in size, cost, beam intensity, beam energy, and beam control is the category that corresponds to potential accelerator stewardship activities.
R&D spending (FY2011 distribution) by thrust area).
The present SC effort is classified into 8 core R&D:
- Superconducting RF
- New accelerator concepts
- Accelerator, beam, and computational physics
- Superconducting magnets
- Normal-conducting high-gradient accelerator structures
- Particle sources
- Beam instrumentation and control
- RF sources
The funding distribution among these thrust areas is indicated in the figure above. In 2011, about 70% of the program was concentrated in the first three areas listed above. This distribution is not fixed, but evolves in response to program priorities. Because accelerators play such a key role in much of the nation’s scientific program, it is clear that, as the science evolves, the demands on accelerator capabilities and performance continue to grow. This results in concomitant growth in accelerator size, complexity, and cost. A strong motivation for our current accelerator R&D effort is to meet the increasing scientific demands for accelerators while avoiding—or at least mitigating—the corresponding increases in size and cost.